The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana) in Arkansas had dwindled to about 300 animals by the early 1930s. At this time, it was widely believed that the mountain lion (Puma concolor) was extirpated from the state (Young and Goldman 1946).

With increasing numbers of mountain lion sightings and accumulation of hard evidence, it appears that free-ranging mountain lions have occasionally appeared in Arkansas. However, the number of animals, their origination, taxonomic status, and breeding status are unknown.

Five sightings have been confirmed since 2009. In the fall of 2014, a deer hunter killed a mountain lion, making it the first mountain lion killed in the state since 1975.